Spine Pain Research Lab


Some papers are available for download at Scholarly Commons @ Penn. You may also email Dr. Winkelstein for reprints.

A comprehensive Medline search of papers by Winkelstein B is located here.

Manuscripts, book chapters, and conference abstracts

2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 & Prior Conference Abstracts (2007-2010)



Sperry MM, Yu YH, Welch RL, Granquist EJ, Winkelstein BA. Grading facial expression is a sensitive means to detect grimace differences in orofacial pain in a rat model. Scientific Reports, 8(1):13894, 2018. (link)

Kartha S, Weisshaar CL, Philips BH, Winkelstein BA. Pre-treatment with meloxicam prevents the spinal inflammation and oxidative stress in DRG neurons that accompany painful cervical radiculopathy. Neuroscience, 388:393-404, 2018. (link)

Kartha S, Bulka BA, Stiansen NS, Troche HR, Winkelstein BA. Repeated high rate facet capsular stretch at strains that are below the pain threshold induces pain amd spinal inflammation with decreased ligament strength in the rat. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 140(8):10.1115/1.4040023, 2018. (link)

Sperry MM, Kartha S, Granquist EJ, Winkelstein BA. Inter-subject FDG PET brain networks exhibit multi-scale community structure with different normalization techniques. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 46(7):1001-1012, 2018. (link)

Zhang S, Singh S, Winkelstein BA, Costi JJ. Collagen organization regulates stretch-induced pain-related neuronal signals in vitro: Implications for structure-function relationships in innervated ligaments. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 36(2):770-777, 2018. (link)

Holsgrove TP, Amin DB, Pascual SR, Ding B, Welch WC, Gheduzzi S, Miles AW, Winkelstein BA, Costi JJ. The equivalence of multi-axis spine systems: Recommended stiffness limits using a standardized testing protocol. Journal of Biomechanics, 70:59-66, 2018. (link)

Zhang S, Zarei V, Winkelstein BA, Barocas VH. Multiscale mechanics of the cervical facet capsular ligament with particular emphasis on anomalous fiber realignment prior to tissue failure. Biomechanics & Modeling in Mechanobiology, 17(1):133-145, 2018. (link)


Zhang S, Kartha S, Lee J, Winkelstein BA. Techniques for multiscale neuronal regulation via therapeutic materials and drug design. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 3(11):2744-2760, 2017. (link)

Zhang S, Zhao E, Winkelstein BA. A nociceptive role for integrin signaling in pain after mechanical injury to the spinal facet capsular ligament. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 45(12):2813-2825, 2017. (link)

Zarei V, Zhang S, Winkelstein BA, Barocas VH. Tissue loading and microstructure regulate the deformation of embedded nerve fibers: Predictions from single-scale and multiscale simulations. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 14(135):20170326, 2017. (link)

Kartha S, Yan L, Weisshaar CL, Ita ME, Shuvaev VV, Tsourkas A, Winkelstein BA, Cheng Z. Superoxide dismutase-loaded porous polymersomes as highly efficient antioxidants for treating neuropathic pain. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 6(17): doi:  10.1002/adhm.201700500, 2017. (link)

Smith JR, Lee J, Winkelstein BA. Nerve root compression increases spinal astrocytic vimentin in parallel with sustained pain and endothelial vimentin in association with spinal vascular reestablishment. Spine, 42(19):1434-1439, 2017. (link)

Weisshaar CL, Kras JV, Pall P, Kartha S, Winkelstein BA. Ablation of IB4 non-peptidergic afferents in the facet joint prevents injury-induced pain and thalamic hyperexcitability via supraspinal glutamate transporters. Neuroscience Letters, 655:82-89, 2017. (link)

Ita ME, Zhang S, Holsgrove, Kartha S, Winkelstein BA. The physiological basis of cervical facet-mediated persistent pain: Basic science and clinical challenges. Journal of Orthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 47(7):450-461, 2017. (link)

Ban E, Zhang S, Zarei V, Barocas VH, Winkelstein BA, Picu CR. Collagen organization in facet capsular ligaments varies with spinal region and with ligament deformation. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 139(7):071009-1, 2017. (link)

Ita ME, Crosby DN, Bulka B, Winkelstein BA. Painful cervical facet joint injury is accompanied by changes in the number of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the superficial dorsal horn that differentially relate to local tissue injury severity. Spine, 42(12):E695-E701, 2017. (link)

Smith JR, Winkelstein BA. The role of spinal thrombin through protease-activated receptor 1 in hyperalgesia after neural injury. Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, 26(4):532-541, 2017. (link)

Philips BH, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. Use of the rat grimace scale to evaluate neuropathic pain in a model of cervical radiculopathy. Comparative Medicine, 67(1):1-9, 2017. (link)

Sperry MM, Ita ME, Kartha S, Zhang S, Yu Y-H, Winkelstein BA. The interface of mechanics and nociception in jount pathophysiology: Insights from the facet & temporomandibular joints. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 139(2):021003-2, 2017. (link)


Barr GA, Wang S, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. "Developmental changes in pain and spinal immune gene expression after radicular trauma in the rat." Frontiers in Neurology, 7:223, 2016. (link)

Crosby ND, Winkelstein BA. "Spinal astrocytic thrombospondin-4 induced by excitatory neuronal signaling mediates pain after facet capsule injury." Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 44(11):3215-3224, 2016. (link)

Holsgrove TP, Jaumard NV, Zhu N, Stiansen N, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Upper cervical spine loading simulating a dynamic low-speed collision significantly increases the risk of pain compared to quasistatic loading with equivalent neck kinematics." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(12):121006-1, 2016. (link)

Zeeman ME, Kartha S, Winkelstein BA. "Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile." Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 34:1439-1446, 2016. (link)

Zhang S, Bassett DS, Winkelstein BA. "Stretch-induced network reconfiguration of collagen fibers in the human facet capsular ligament." Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13:20150883, 2016. (link)

Zhang S, Cao X, Stablow AM, Shenoy VB, Winkelstein BA. "Tissue strain reorganizes collagen with a switchlike response that regulates neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in vitro: Implications for ligamentous injury and mechanotransduction." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(2):021013, 2016. (link)

Kartha S, Zhou T, Granquist EJ, Winkelstein BA. "A rat model of tunable TMJ pain, inflammation & condylar degeneration." Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 74(1):54.e1-e10, 2016. (link)

Smith JR, Galie PA, Slochower DR, Weisshaar CL, Janmey PA, Winkelstein BA. "Salmon-derived thrombin inhibits development of chronic pain through an endothelial barrier protective mechanism dependent on APC." Biomaterials, 80:96-105, 2016.(link)


Kras JV, Kartha S, Winkelstein BA. "Intra-articular nerve growth factor regulates development, but not maintenance, of injury-induced facet joint pain & spinal neuronal hypersensitivity." Osteoarthritis & Cartilage, 23(11):E1084-E1092, 2015.(link)

Jaumard NV, Leung J, Gokhale AJ, Guarino BB, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Relevant Anatomic and Morphological Measurements of the Rat Spine: Considerations for Rodent Models of Human Spine Trauma." Spine, 40(20):E1084-E1092, 2015.(link)

Kras JV, Weisshaar CL, Pall PS, Winkelstein BA. "Pain from either intra-articular NGF or joint injury in the rat requires contributions from peptidergic joint afferents." Neuroscience Letters, 604:193-198, 2015.(link)

Zeeman ME, Kartha S, Jaumard NV, Baig HA, Stablow AM, Lee J, Guarino BB, Winkelstein BA. "Whole body vibration at thoracic resonance induces sustained pain and widespread cervical neuroinflammation in the rat." Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 473(9):2936-2947, 2015.(link)

Holsgrove TP, Nayak NR, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Advanced multi-axis spine testing: Clinical relevance and research recommendations." International Journal of Spine Surgery, 9(34):DOI:10.13333/2034, 2015.(link)

Crosby ND, Weisshaar CL, Smith JR, Zeeman ME, Goodman-Keiser MD, Winkelstein BA. "Burst & tonic spinal cord stimulation differentially activate GABAergic mechanisms to attenutate pain in a rat model of cervical radiculopathy." IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, 62(6):1604-1613, 2015.(link)

Lai A, Moon A, Purmessur D, Skovrlj B, Winkelstein BA, Cho SK, Hecht AC, Iatridis JC. "Assessment of functional and behavioral changes sensitive to painful disc degeneration." Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 33(5):755-764, 2015.(link)

Crosby ND, Goodman Keiser M, Smith JR, Zeeman ME, Winkelstein BA. "Stimulation parameters define the effectiveness of burst spinal cord stimulation in a rat model of neuropathic pain." Neuromodulation, 18(1):1-8, 2015.(link)

Crosby ND, Zaucke F, Kras JV, Dong L, Luo ZD, Winkelstein BA. "Thrombospondin-4 and excitatory synaptogenesis promote central sensitization after painful mechanical joint injury." Experimental Neurology, 264:111-120, 2015.(link)


Baig HA, Dorman DB, Bulka BA, Shivers BL, Chancey VC, Winkelstein BA. "Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 136(10): 101002-1, 2014.(link)

Crosby ND, Gilliland TM, Winkelstein BA. "Early afferent activity from the facet joint after painful trauma to its capsule potentiates neuronal excitability and glutamate signaling in the spinal cord." Pain, 155(9):1878-1887, 2014.(link)

Kartha S, Zeeman ME, Baig HA, Guarino BB, Winkelstein BA. "Upregulation of BDNF and NGF in cervical intervertebral discs exposed to painful whole-body vibration." Spine, 39(19):1542-1548, 2014.(link)

Gullotti D, Beamer M, Panzer MB, Chen YC, Patel TP, Yu A, Jaumard N, Winkelstein B, Bass CR, Morrison B, Meaney DF. "Significant head accelerations can influence immediate neurological impairments in a murine model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 136(9):091004-1, 2014.(link)

Syré PP, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. "Sustained neuronal hypersensitivity is evident in the thalamus after a transient cervical radicular injury." Spine, 39(15):E870-E877, 2014.(link)

Jaumard NV, Udupa JK, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Kinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Define the Cervical Facet Joint Space for the Spine in Neutral and Torsion." Spine, 39(8):664-672, 2014.(link)

Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. "Ablating Spinal NK1-Bearing Neurons Eliminates the Development of Pain and Reduces Spinal Neuronal Hyperexcitability and Inflammation From Mechanical Joint Injury in the Rat." The Journal of Pain, 15(4):378-386, 2014.(link)

Nicholson KJ, Zhang S, Gilliland T, Winkelstein BA. "Riluzole effects on behavioral sensitivity and the development of axonal damage and spinal modifications that occur after painful nerve root compression." Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, 20(6):751-762, 2014.(link)

Kras NV, Dong L, Winkelstein BA. "Increased interleukin-1a & prostaglandin E2 expression in the spinal cord at day 1 after painful facet joint injury: Evidence of early spinal inflammation." Spine, 39(3):207-212, 2014.(link)

Nicholson KJ, Gilliland TM, Winkelstein BA.  "Upregulation of GLT-1 by treatment with ceftriaxone alleviates radicular pain by reducing spinal astrocyte activation and neuronal hyperexcitability." Journal of Neuroscience Research, 92(1):116-129, 2014.(link)


Dong L, Crosby ND, Winkelstein BA. "Gabapentin alleviates facet-mediated pain through reduced neuronal hyperexcitability and astrocytic activation in the spinal cord." Journal of Pain, 14(12):1564-1572, 2013.(link)

Smith JR, Syré PP, Oake S, Nicholson KJ, Weisshaar CL, Cruz K, Bucki R, Baumann B, Janmey PA, Winkelstein BA. "Salmon and human thrombin differentially regulate radicular pain, glial-induced inflammation and spinal neuronal excitability through the protease-activated receptor-1." PLoS One, 8(11):e0080006, 2013.(link)

Zhang S, Nicholson KJ, Smith JR, Syré PP, Gilliland TM, Winkelstein BA. "The roles of mechanical compression and chemical irritation in regulating spinal neuronal signaling in painful cervical nerve root injury." Stapp Car Crash Journal, 57:219-242, 2013.(link)

Baig HA, Guarino BB, Lipschutz DE, Winkelstein BA. "Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral hypersensitivity in the rat." Journal of Orthopedic Research, 31(11):1739-1744, 2013.(link)

Kras JV, Weisshaar CL, Quindlen JA, Winkelstein BA.  "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is upregulated in the cervical DRG & spinal cord and contributes to the maintenance of pain from facet joint injury." Journal of Neuroscience Research, 91(10):1312-1321, 2013.(link)

Jaumard NV, Udupa JK, Siegler S, Schuster JM, Hilibrand AS, Hirsch BE, Borthakur A, Winkelstein BA. "Three-dimensional kinematic stress magnetic resonance image analysis shows promise for detecting altered anatomical relationships of tissues in the cervical spine associated with painful radiculopathy." Medical Hypotheses, 81(4):738-744, 2013.(link)

Crosby ND, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. "Spinal neuronal plasticity is evident within 1 day after a painful cervical facet capsule injury." Neuroscience Letters, 542:102-106, 2013.(link)

Dong L, Smith JR, Winkelstein BA. "Ketorolac reduces spinal astrocytic activation and PAR1 expression associated with attenuation of pain following facet joint injury." Journal of Neurotrauma, 30(10):818-825, 2013.(link)

Kras JV, Tanaka K, Gilliland TM, Winkelstein BA. "An anatomical and immunohistochemical characterization of afferents innervating the C6/C7 facet joint after painful joint loading in the rat." Spine, 38(6):E325-E331, 2013.(link)

Kras JV, Dong L, Winkelstein BA. "The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2, is upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion after painful cervical facet joint injury in the rat." Spine, 38(3):217-222, 2013.(link)

Jaumard NV, Bauman JA, Guarino BB, Gokhale AJ, Lipschutz DE, Weisshaar CL,Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "ProDisc cervical arthoplasty does not alter facet joint contact pressure during lateral bending or axial torsion." Spine, 38(2): E84–E93, 2013. (link)


Bauman JA, Jaumard NV, Guarino BB, Weisshaar CL, Lipschutz DE, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Facet joint contact pressure is not significantly affected by ProDisc cervical disc arthroplasty in sagittal bending: a single-level cadaveric study." The Spine Journal, 12(10): 949-959, 2012. (link)

Lee DJ, Winkelstein BA. "The failure response of the human cervical facet capsular ligament during facet joint retraction."Journal of Biomechanics, 45(14):2325-2329, 2012.(link)

Dong L, Quindlen JC, Lipschutz DE, Winkelstein BA. "Whiplash-like facet joint loading initiates glutamatergic responses in the DRG and spinal cord associated with behavioral hypersensitivity." Brain Research, 1461:51-63, 2012. (link)

Nicholson KJ, Guarino BB, Winkelstein BA. "Transient Nerve Root Compression Load and Duration Differentially Mediate Behavioral Sensitivity and Associated Spinal Astrocyte Activation and mGluR5 Expression." Neuroscience, 209:187-95, 2012. (link)


Curatolo M, Bogduk N, Ivancic PC, McLean SA, Siegmund GP, Winkelstein BA. "The Role of Tissue Damage in Whiplash-Associated Disorders." Spine, 36(25S): S309–S315, 2011. (link)

Winkelstein BA . "How can animal models inform on the transition to chronic symptoms in whiplash?" Spine, 36(25s): S218-S225, 2011. (link)

Chang YW, Winkelstein BA. "Schwann Cell Proliferation and Macrophage Infiltration Are Evident at Day 14 after Painful Cervical Nerve Root Compression in the Rat." Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(12): 2429-2438, 2011. (link)

Nicholson KJ, Quindlen JC, Winkelstein BA. "Development of a Duration Threshold for Modulating Evoked Neuronal Responses After Nerve Root Compression Injury." Stapp Car Crash Journal, 55:1-24, 2011. (link)

Weisshaar CL, Winer JP, Guarino BB, Janmey PA, Winkelstein BA. "The potential for salmon fibrin and thrombin to mitigate pain subsequent to cervical nerve root injury." Biomaterials, 32(36):9738-46, 2011. (link)

Dong L, Guarino BB, Jordan-Sciutto KL, Winkelstein BA. "Activating Transcription Factor 4, a Mediator of the Integrated Stress Response, is Increased in the Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Painful Facet Joint Distraction." Neuroscience, 193:377-86, 2011. (link)

Jaumard NV, Bauman JA, Weisshaar CL, Guarino BB, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Contact Pressure in the Facet Joint During Sagittal Bending of the Cadaveric Cervical Spine." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133(7): 071004, 2011. (link)

Jaumard NV, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Spinal Facet Joint Biomechanics and Mechanotransduction in Normal, Injury and Degenerative Conditions." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 133(7): 071010, 2011. (link)

Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. "Detection of Altered Collagen Fiber Alignment in the Cervical Facet Capsule After Whiplash-like Joint Retraction." Annals of Biomedical Engineering,  39(8): 2163-73, 2011. (link)

Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. "Preconditioning is Correlated With Altered Collagen Fiber Alignment in Ligament." Journal of  Biomechanical Engineering, 133(6): 064506, 2011. (link)

Jaumard NV, Bauman JA, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. "Pressure Measurement in the Cervical Spinal Facet Joint." Spine, 36(15):1197-1203, 2011. (link)

Thorek DL, Weisshaar CL, Czupryna JC, Winkelstein BA, Tsourkas A. "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Radicular Pain." Molecular Imaging, 10(3):206-14, 2011. (link)

Dunk NM, Nicholson KJ, Winkelstein BA. "Impaired Performance on the Angle Board Test is Induced in a Model of Painful Whiplash Injury but is Only Transient in a Model of Cervical Radiculopathy." Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 29(4): 562-566, 2011. ( link)

Rothman SM, Ma LH, Whiteside GT, Winkelstein BA. "Inflammatory Cytokine and Chemokine Expression is Differentially Modulated Acutely in the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Response to Different Nerve Root Compressions." Spine, 36(3):197-202, 2011. (link)


Weisshaar CL, Dong L, Bowman AS, Perez FM, Guarino BB, Sweitzer SM, Winkelstein BA. "Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-5 and Protein Kinase C-Epsilon Increase in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons and Spinal Glial Activation in an Adolescent Rat Model of Painful Neck Injury." Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(12): 2261-2271, 2010. (link)

Quinn KP, Dong L, Golder FJ, Winkelstein BA. "Neuronal hyperexcitability in the dorsal horn after painful facet joint injury." Pain, 151: 414-421, 2010. (link)

Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. "Full field strain measurements of collagenous tissue by tracking fiber alignment through vector correlation." Journal of Biomechanics, 43(13): 2637-2640, 2010. (link)

Quinn KP, Bauman JA, Crosby ND, Winkelstein BA. "Anomalous fiber realignment during tensile loading of the rat facet capsular ligament identifies mechanically induced damage and physiological dysfunction." Journal of Biomechanics, 43(10):1870-1875, 2010. (link)

Nicoll SB, Hee CK, Davis MB, Winkelstein BA. "A rat model of TMJ pain with histopathologic modifications." Journal of Orofacial Pain, 24(3): 298-304, 2010. (link)

Winkelstein BA, Kras JV. "Is there an antinociceptive role for peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor?" Spine Journal, 10(8):733-735, 2010. (link)

Rothman SM, Winkelstein BA.  "Cytokine Antagonism Reduces Pain and Modulates Spinal Astrocytic Reactivity After Cervical Nerve Root Compression." Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 38(8):2563-76, 2010 (link)

Rothman SM, Nicholson KJ, Winkelstein BA.  "Time-dependent mechanics and measures of glial and behavioral sensitivity in a rodent model of radiculopathy."  Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(5):803-814, 2010. (link)

Dong L, Winkelstein BA.  "Simulated whiplash modulates expression of the glutamatergic system in the spinal cord suggesting spinal plasticity is associated with painful dynamic cervical facet loading."  Journal of Neurotrauma, 27(1):163-174, 2010.  (link)


Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA.  "Vector correlation technique for pixel-wise detection of collagen fiber realignment during injurious tensile loading."  Journal of Biomedical Optics, 14(5), 054010, 2009.  (link)

Hubbard RD, Rothman SM, Winkelstein BA.  "Biomechanical effects of neural tissue loading & pain."  Mechanisms of Pain in Peripheral Neuropathy.  Zhang, J, Dobretsov, M, Eds., Transworld Research Network, pg 153-188, 2009.

Rothman SM, Guarino BB, Winkelstein BA.  "Spinal microglial proliferation is evident in a rat model of painful disc herniation both in the presence of behavioral hypersensitivity and following minocycline treatment sufficient to attenuate allodynia."  Journal of Neuroscience Research, 87(12):2709-2717, 2009. (link)

Siegmund GP, Winkelstein BA, Ivancic PC, Svensson MY, Vasavada A. "The anatomy and biomechanics of acute and chronic whiplash injury." Traffic Injury Prevention 10(2):101-112, 2009. (link)

Lee KE, Winkelstein BA. "Joint distraction magnitude is associated with different behavioral outcomes and substance P levels for cervical facet joint loading in the rat." Journal of Pain , 10(4):436-445, 2009. (link)

Hubbard RD, Martínez JJ, Burdick JA, Winkelstein BA.  "Controlled Release of GDNF Reduces Nerve Root-Mediated Behavioral Hypersensitivity."  Journal of Orthopaedic Research 27(1):120-127, 2009.  (link)

Rothman SM, Huang ZH, Lee KE, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA.  "Cytokine mRNA expression in painful radiculopathy."  Journal of Pain 10(1):90-99, 2009. (link)


Liu J, Udupa JK, Saha PK, Odhner D, Hirsch BE, Siegler S, Simon S, Winkelstein BA. "Rigid model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in MR and CT images for motion analysis." Medical Physics, 35(8):3637-3649, 2008. (link)

Hubbard, RD, Quinn, KP, Martinez, JJ, Winkelstein, BA.  "The Role of Graded Nerve Root Compression on Axonal Damage, Neuropeptide Changes, and Pain-Related Behaviors"  Stapp Car Crash J 52:33-58, 2008. (link)

Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA.  "Altered collagen fiber kinematics define the onset of localized ligament damage during loading."  Journal of Applied Physiology 105(6):1881-8, 2008. (link)

Lee KE, Davis MB, Winkelstein BA.  "Capsular ligament involvement in the development of mechanical hyperalgesia after facet joint loading: behavioral and inflammatory outcomes in a rodent model of pain."  Journal of Neurotrauma 25(11): 1383-93, 2008. (link)

Dong L, Odeleye AO, Jordan-Sciutto KL, Winkelstein BA.  "Painful facet injury induces neuronal stress activation in the DRG: Implications for cellular mechanisms of pain."  Neuroscience Letters 443(2):90-4, 2008. (link)

Winkelstein BA, Santos DG.  "An intact facet capsular ligament modulates behavioral sensitivity and spinal glial activation produced by cervical facet joint tension."  Spine 33(8):856-62, 2008. (link)

Siegmund GP, Davis MB, Quinn KP, Hines E, Myers BS, Ejima S, Ono K, Kamiji J, Yasuki T, Winkelstein BA.  "Head-turned postures increase the risk of cervical facet capsule injury during whiplash."  Spine 33(15):1643-9, 2008. (link)

Hubbard RD, Winkelstein BA.  "Dorsal Root Compression Produces Myelinated Axonal Degeneration Near the Biomechanical Thresholds for Mechanical Behavioral Hypersensitivity."  Experimental Neurology 212(2):482-9,2008. (link)

Hubbard RD, Chen Z, Winkelstein BA. "Transient Cervical Nerve Root Compression Modulates Pain: Load Thresholds for Allodynia and Sustained Changes in Spinal Neuropeptide Expression." Journal of Biomechanics 41(3):677-85, 2008. (link)


Quinn KP, Lee KE, Ahaghotu CC, Winkelstein BA. "Structural Changes in the Cervical Facet Capsular Ligament: Potential Contributions to Pain Following Subfailure Loading." Stapp Car Crash Journal 51:169-187, 2007. (link)

Rothman SM, Winkelstein BA.  "Chemical and mechanical nerve root insults induce differential behavioral sensitivity and glial activation that are enhanced in combination."  Brain Research 1181:30-43, 2007. (link)

Quinn KP and Winkelstein BA. "Cervical Facet Capsular Ligament Yield Defines the Threshold for Injury and Persistent Joint-Mediated Neck Pain." Journal of Biomechanics 40(10):2299-306, 2007. (link)

Rothman SM, Hubbard RD, Lee KE and Winkelstein BA. "Detection, Transmission, and Perception of Pain." in Interventional Spine: An Algorithmic Approach, Slipman C, Simeone F, Derby R, Eds., Elsevier, pg 29-37, 2007.


Lee KE, Franklin AN, Davis MB, and Winkelstein BA. "Tensile Cervical Facet Capsule Ligament Mechanics: Failure and Subfailure Responses in the Rodent." Journal of Biomechanics 39(7):1256-64, 2006. (link)

Simon SL, Davis MB, Udupa J, Odhner D, and Winkelstein BA. "CT Imaging Techniques for Describing Motions of the Cervicothoracic Junction and Cervical Spine During Flexion, Extension, and Cervical Traction." Spine 31(1):44-50, 2006. (link)

Winkelstein BA. "Pain & Injury: Mechanisms of Central Sensitization, CNS Nociception, Injury Biomechanics, and Implications for Muscuoloskeletal Disorders." in Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Karwowski W and Marras W, Eds., CRC press, pg 16.1-16.16, 2006.

2005 & Prior
Rothman SM, Kreider RA and Winkelstein BA. "Spinal Neuropeptide Responses in Persistent and Transient Pain Following Cervical Nerve Root Injury." Spine 30(22):2491-2496, 2005. (link)

Hubbard RD and Winkelstein BA. "Transient Cervical Nerve Root Compression in the Rat Induces Bilateral Forepaw Allodynia and Spinal Glial Activation: Mechanical Factors in Painful Neck Injuries." Spine 30(17):1924-1932, 2005. (link)

Lee KE, Davis MB, Mejilla RM and Winkelstein BA. "In Vivo Cervical Facet Capsule Distraction: Mechanical Implications for Whiplash & Neck Pain." Stapp Car Crash Journal 48:373-396, 2004. (link)

Winkelstein BA and Weinstein JN. "Pain Mechanisms: Relevant Anatomy, Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications." in The Cervical Spine 4th edition, Clark CR, Ed., 122-132, 2004.

Lee KE, Thinnes JH, Gokhin DS, and Winkelstein BA. "A Novel Rodent Neck Pain Model of Facet-Mediated Behavioral Hypersensitivity: Implications for Persistent Pain and Whiplash Injury." Journal of Neuroscience Methods 137(2):151-159, 2004. (link)

Winkelstein BA and DeLeo JA. "Mechanical Thresholds for Initiation and Persistence of Pain Following Nerve Root Injury: Mechanical and Chemical Contributions at Injury."Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 126(2):258-263, 2004. (link)

Winkelstein BA. "Mechanisms of Central Sensitization, Neuroimmunology & Injury Biomechanics in Persistent Pain: Implications for Musculoskeletal Disorders." Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, 14(1):87-93, 2004. (link)

Winkelstein BA, Point-of-View Commentary on “Changes in Spontaneous Behavior in Rats Exposed to Experimental Disc Herniation are Blocked by Selective TNF-a Inhibition.” Spine, 28(15):1642, 2003. 

Winkelstein BA and DeLeo JA. "Nerve Root Tissue Injury Severity Differentially Modulates Spinal Glial Activation in a Rat Lumbar Radiculopathy Model: Considerations for Persistent Pain." Brain Research, 956(2):294-301, 2002. (link)

DeLeo JA and Winkelstein BA. "Physiology of Chronic Spinal Pain Syndromes: From Animal Models to Biomechanics." Spine, 27(22):2526-2537, 2002. (link)

Winkelstein BA and Myers BS. "Importance of Nonlinear and Multivariable Flexibility Coefficients in the Prediction of Human Cervical Spine Motion." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 124(5):504-511, 2002. (link)

Rutkowski MD, Winkelstein BA, Hickey WF, Pahl JL and DeLeo JA. "Lumbar Nerve Root Injury Induces CNS Neuroimmune Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Rat: Relationship to Painful Radiculopathy." Spine, 27(15):1604-1613, 2002. (link)

Nightingale RW, Winkelstein BA, Knaub KE, Richardson WJ, Luck JF and Myers BS. "Comparative Strengths and Structural Properties of the Upper and Lower Cervical Spine in Flexion and Extension." Journal of Biomechanics, 35(6):725-732, 2002. (link)

Winkelstein BA, Weinstein JN and DeLeo JA. "The Role of Mechanical Deformation in Lumbar Radiculopathy: An In Vivo Model." Spine, 27(1):27-33, 2002 (selected by Dannemiller Memorial Foundation for publication in AnalgesiaFile). 39(7):1256-1264, 2002. (link )

Conference Abstracts (2007-2010)
Hubbard RD, Burdick, JA, Winkelstein BA. Hydrogel Delivery of GDNF Reduces Behavioral Hypersensitivity Following Painful Nerve Root Compression. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #181688, Los Angeles, CA, September 2007.

Lee KE, Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. Biomechanical Outcomes of the Cervical Facet Joint for Painful Subfailure Loading. Philadelphia Spine Research Symposium, Philadelphia, PA, October 2007.

Hubbard RD, Burdick JB, Winkelstein BA. Biomechanics of Dorsal Root Injury Drives Pain Symptoms & Neuronal Pathology Which Can be Rescued by Hydrogel Delivery of GDNF: A Potential Therapeutic for Chronic Radicular Pain. Philadelphia Spine Research Symposium, Philadelphia, PA, October 2007.

Radin S, Huang Z, Garino J, Winkelstein BA, Ducheyne P. Controlled Release of Analgesics for Post-Operative Pain Management Using Sol Gel Delivery Formulations. 8th World Biomaterials Congress, #1297, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May 2008.

Dong L, Odeleye A, Akay C, Jordan-Sciutto K, Winkelstein BA. The Stress Response in Injured Afferents of the Capsular Ligament Depends on Tensile Loading Applied to the Facet Joint. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #192666, Marco Island, FL, June 2008.

Quinn KP, Lee KE, Winkelstein BA. Joint Distractions Sufficient to Produce Pain Increase Collagen Fiber Undulation in the Cervical Facet Capsular Ligament in the Rat. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #192644, Marco Island, FL, June 2008.

Choo AM, Winer JP, Winkelstein BA, Smith DH, Janmey PA, Meaney DF. Salmon-Derived Fibrin for the Acute Treatment of Cortical Ablation Brain Injuries. National Neurotrauma Society 26th Annual Meeting, #P63, Orlando, FL, July 2008.

Thorek D, Rothman S, Winkelstein B, Tsourkas A. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Animal Pain Model Using SPIO. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #P4.110, Saint Louis, MO, October 2008.

Dong L, Odeleye A, Akay C, Jordan-Sciutto K, Winkelstein BA. Painful Cervical Facet Joint Injury Activates the Neuronal Stress Response in the DRG. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, #415.12, Washington DC, November 2008.

Rothman SM, Winkelstein BA. Spinal Glial Proliferation in Painful Cervical Nerve Root Compression. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, #213.11, Washington DC, November 2008.

Choo AM, Winer JP, Winkelstein BA, Smith DH, Janmey PJ, Meaney DF. Salmon-Derived Fibrin for the Acute Treatment of Cortical Ablation Brain Injuries. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, #753.4, Washington DC, November 2008.

Weisshaar C, Winer J, Rothman S, Janmey P, Winkelstein B. Salmon-Derived Fibrin Attenuates Allodynia Following Transient Cervical Nerve Root Injury in the Rat. Keystone Symposium: Neurobiology of Pain and Analgesia, #219, Santa Fe, NM, February 2009.

Quinn KP, Luck JF, Nightingale RW, Winkelstein BA. The Onset of Structural Yield During Tensile Loading Increases With Age In The Pediatric PMHS Cervical Spine. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #204771, Lake Tahoe, CA, June 2009.

Craig KM, Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. Force At Damage And Failure Decreases With Age In The Human Cadaveric Facet Capsular Ligament During Tension.” ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #206135, Lake Tahoe, CA, June 2009.

Bauman JA, Weisshaar CL, Davis MB, Craig KM, Schuster JM, Winkelstein BA. An Integrated Experimental System to Measure Cervical Facet Joint Pressure in the Cadaver: A Pilot Study. Global Spine Conference, #194, San Francisco, CA, June 2009.

Bauman, JA, Jaumard NV, Weisshaar CL, Schuster JM, Winkelstein BA, Welch WC. An Integrated System to Measure Pressures in the Cervical Facet Joint in Human Cadavers. Pennsylvania Neuosurgical Society Annual Conference, Hershey, PA, July 2009.

Thorek DLJ, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA, Tsourkas A. MR Detection of Macrophage Using SIPO after Transient Cervical Nerve Root Compression in the Rat. World Molecular Imaging Congress, #0058, Montreal, Canada, September 2009.

Quinn KP, Craig KM, Winkelstein BA. Detecting Facet Capsular Ligament Injury During Tension Using Collagen Fiber Realignment. Annual Meeting of Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, #P02, Baltimore, MD, October 2009.

Thorek DLJ, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA, Tsourkas A. SPIO-Enabled Detection of Transient Cervical Nerve Root Compression in a Rat Model. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #OP1-3-12A, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

Lee KE, Kras JV, Robinson ES, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA.  Mechanical Facet Joint Injury Alters Early but not Long-Term Neuronal Activity in the Spinal Cord. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #OP8-2-7C, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

Winkelstein BA, Udupa JK, Hilibrand AS, Schuster JM, Siegler S, Hirsch BE, Borthakur A, Melhem ER. Novel Imaging Approach Using 3D Stress MRI to Detect Altered Biomechanics in Neck Pain Patients. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #OP10-3-8D, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

Dong L, Martinez JJ, Winkelstein BA. Spinal DREAM, a Transcriptional Repressor, is Downregulated After Painful Facet Joint Injury. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #PS8B-135, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

Nicholson KJ, Rothman, SM, Winkelstein BA. Mechanical & Physiologic Outcomes After Nerve Root Compression Depend on the Applied Duration. BMES Annual Fall Meeting, #OP8-1-11F, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2009.

Hirsch BE, Udupa JK, Siegler S, Winkelstein BA. The Application of 3D Image Processing to Studies of the Musculoskelelal System. 6th International Symposium on Multispectral Image Processing & Pattern Recognition, Yichang, China, October 2009.

Thorek DLJ, Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA, Tsourkas A. SPIO-Enhanced Detection of Transient Cervical Nerve Root Compression. Radiologic Society of North America Annual Meeting, #SSA12-08, Chicago, IL, November 2009.

Winkelstein BA, Udupa JK, Hilibrand AS, Schuster JM, Siegler S, Hirsch BE, Borthakur A, Melhem ER. A Novel 3D Stress MR Imaging Approach to Detect Altered Biomechanics in Neck Pain Patients. Cervical Spine Research Society Annual Meeting, #17, Salt Lake, UT, December 2009.

Bauman, JA, Winkelstein BA, Udupa JK, Hilibrand AS, Schuster JM, Siegler S, Hirsch BE, Borthakur A, Melhem ER. Defining Volumetric and Orientation Tropisms in Cervical Facet Joints Using High-Resolution Kinematic MRI. Cervical Spine Research Society Annual Meeting, #46, Salt Lake, UT, December 2009.

Winkelstein BA. Inflammatory Mechanisms Contributing to Cervical Radiculopathy. 18th Annual Meeting of the Rachidian Society, Kona, HI, February, 2010.

Bowman C, Perez F, Dong L, Weisshaar C, Winkelstein BA, Sweitzer SM. Facet Joint Injury in the Neck Increases Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-5 and Protein Kinase-C Epsilon in Afferent Neurons in a Rat Model of Whiplash Injury. SYNAPSE Conference, Winston-Salem, NC, March 2010.

Winkelstein BA, Rothman SM. Cytokine Antagonism Early After Cervical Nerve Root Compression Reduces Pain and Modulates Spinal Astrocytic Reactivity. American Pain Society Annual Meeting, #218, Baltimore, MD, May 2010.

Crosby ND, Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA. Microstructural Modeling of Fiber Kinematics and Biomechanics of the Human Facet Capsular Ligament During Subfailure Loading. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #SBC2010-19236, Naples, FL, June 2010.

Sander EA, Quinn KP, Winkelstein BA, Barocas VH. Localizing Damage in the Cervical Facet Capsular Ligament with Image-Based Multiscale Models. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #SBC2010-192971, Naples, FL, June 2010.

Jaumard NJ, Bauman JA, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. Biomechanical Comparison of Contact Pressure in the Cervical Facet Joint During Bending Using a Probe & Pressure-Sensitive Paper. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, #SBC2010-19498, Naples, FL, June 2010.

Quinn KP, Dong L, Kras JV, Golder FJ, Winkelstein BA. Painful Cervical Facet Joint Distraction Produces Neuronal Plasticity in the Spinal Dorsal Horn. 6th World Congress of Biomechanics, #D2-C-S2.3-02, Singapore, August 2010.

>Jaumard NJ, Bauman JA, Welch WC, Winkelstein BA. Contact Pressure in the Cervical Facet Joint During Sagittal Bending: Quantification of Pressure Magnitudes & Locations. 6th World Congress of Biomechanics, #D4-C-T2.6-03, Singapore, August 2010.